Katsumoto Hosokawa (1/2)General of the Eastern Army during the Onin War

Katsumoto Hosokawa

Katsumoto Hosokawa

Article category
Katsumoto Hosokawa (1430-1473)
place of birth
Related castles
Nijo Castle

Nijo Castle

The Ashikaga shogunate ruled the Muromachi shogunate for generations, but their power gradually weakened over the generations until the Onin War broke out. Around this time, turmoil began to arise within the government, with disputes arising among the shogun's retainers over the succession of the shogun. Katsumoto Hosokawa, who was born into the Hosokawa family that served as Kanrei for generations, became the commander-in-chief of the Eastern Army during the Onin War, and acts as the leader of the Shogunate. This time we will introduce the life of Katsumoto Hosokawa.

What is the Hosokawa Kanrei family?

The Hosokawa Keicho family was the head and direct line of the Hosokawa clan, and at the same time they inherited the post of shugo of Settsu, Tanba, Sanuki, Tosa, etc., and at the same time, they were appointed to the post of kanrei of the Muromachi shogunate from generation to generation, so they became the kanrei Hosokawa. Also called home.

``Kyocho'' is the Chinese name for Ukyo Dayu, ``Kyochoto''. It originates from the fact that the head of the family was appointed to the official rank of Ukyo Dayu for generations. Also, from this official rank, he was also called Ukyocho Hosokawa. As mentioned above, after the downfall and collapse of the Hosokawa Kiyoshi clan, which was originally the direct line of the Hosokawa clan and boasted power, the Kiyoshi clan began with Yoriyuki Hosokawa (a cousin of the Kiyoshi clan), who subjugated the Kiyoshi clan and laid the foundation for the shogunate and the rise of the Hosokawa clan as Kanrei. Yoriyuki's line became the main line and direct line of the Hosokawa clan, replacing the line of .

The common name of the successive heads of the family is ``Moto'', named after Yorimoto Hosokawa, his younger brother who succeeded Yoriyuki, and some people use ``Yuki'', named after Yoriyuki.

Yoriyuki served as Chugoku Kanrei and Shikoku Kanrei, and promoted the division of Shikoku, including Sanuki, Awa, and Tosa. In the center, he became Kanrei and ruled, assisting the young Shogun Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA and controlling the shogunate. Although Yoshimitsu had a strong trust in Yoshimitsu, Yoriyuki lost his position due to the Kōreki Coup in 1379 (1379). However, by maintaining his divided control over his territory of Shikoku, centered on Awa, he defeated hostile forces and eventually returned to central politics.

Yoriyuki himself, because of his priesthood, recommended Yorimoto, his younger brother and adopted son (Yoriyuki had no biological children), to become the guardian of Tanba and Settsu, which strengthened the surrounding area of Kyoto, and further promoted him to the post of kanrei. The Keicho family, along with the Shiba and Hatakeyama clans of the Ashikaga clan, came to play an important role as Sankanryo (Sankan Shishoku), who assisted the Shogun, and also as Shuro of the Muromachi Shogunate.

In the mid-to-late Muromachi period, Katsumoto Hosokawa won a power struggle with Mochikuni Hatakeyama, held the post of Kanryo three times for a total of 23 years, and joined forces with the powerful Yamana Sozen (Mochitoyo) to weaken the Hatakeyama clan. Masu.

However, Sozen, who supports Yoshinari Hatakeyama, and Katsumoto, who supports Masanaga Hatakeyama, are at odds over issues such as inheritance of the Shogun family and Hatakeyama family, and Yoshimi Ashikaga is appointed as the commander-in-chief of the Eastern Army, and there is a conflict between Sozen and the Western Army led by Sozen. He caused the Onin War, which lasted for 11 years, and died of illness during the war.

From birth to family succession and power struggles

He was born in 1430 as the eldest son of Mochiyuki Hosokawa, the 14th Kanrei of the Muromachi Shogunate. His childhood name was Someimaru.
His father died in August 1442, so he succeeded to the headship of the family at the age of 13. At this time, he received an epithet from the 7th Shogun Yoshikatsu Ashikaga and took the name Katsumoto, and under the guardianship of his uncle Mochikata Hosokawa, he became the guardian of Settsu, Tamba, Sanuki, and Tosa.

In 1445, at the age of 16, he was appointed as Kanrei in place of Mochikuni Hatakeyama (Tokumoto), and thereafter held the post three times for a total of 23 years, gaining influence over the shogunate. Katsumoto served as Kanrei from the 2nd year of Bun'an to 1449, from 1452 to 1464, and from July 1468 to the 5th year of Bunmei until his death. (1473) Three times until May.

It is said that Katsumoto Hosokawa and Mochitoyo Yamana (Sozen) were not on good terms due to their hostile relationship during the Onin War, but this was not the case at first.

At that time, the entire Hosokawa Keicho family was the guardian of nine countries, while the Yamana clan was the guardian of eight countries, including the former Akamatsu territory, due to their achievement in destroying the Akamatsu clan in the Kakichi War. For this reason, Katsumoto thought that it was not a good idea to fight with Mochitoyo, and in 1447 he cooperated with Mochitoyo by accepting his adopted daughter as his legal wife. It was also necessary to join hands with Mochitoyo in order to counter his political enemy Mochikuni Hatakeyama.

When Mochikuni Hatakeyama attempted to reinstate the former head of the family, who had been forced out of the head position by the sixth shogun Yoshinori ASHIKAGA, Katsumoto opposed this and supported the feudal lords and locals who had been taken over by Yoshinori.
Mochikuni appointed Ogasawara Mochinaga as the shugo of Shinano Province, and supported the former shugo of Kaga Province, Noriie Togashi, father and son, Nariharu, and in Yamato Province, former Kofukuji Temple betto Keikaku, Ochi Iesaka, Furuichi Tanesen, Koizumi Shigehiro, and Toyota Yori. Supported Britain.

In response, Katsumoto supported Ogasawara Muneyasu and the Mitsuyasu brothers and Yasutaka Togashi, supported Seishinin Mitsunobu and Tsutsui Jun'ei, who were enemies of the Keikaku faction in Yamato, and supported Katsui in Shinano, Kaga, and Yamato. Katsumoto's proxy wars occurred frequently. In 1445, Tokitsuna's younger brother Hisayori and Kyogoku Mochikiyo suppressed Rokkaku Tokitsuna, who started a rebellion in Omi Province.

In 1451, Katsumoto sent people to a Ryukyu merchant ship that was entering Hyogotsu port, selected and acquired goods, but did not pay the price.The Ryukyu merchants complained to the shogunate, and Ashikaga Yoshimasa sent three magistrates to investigate, but Katsumoto did not return the stolen items.

In 1453, the post of guardian of Iyo was changed from Norimichi Kono to Michiharu Kono, but in fact, Katsumoto secretly created Gokyosho and Hosho, etc., secretly from Yoshimasa, who supported Norimichi. When this fact was discovered, Katsumoto was blamed by Yoshimasa and announced his resignation, but with Yoshimasa's persuasion, he ultimately remained in office.
Two years later, in 1455, he became the Shugo of Iyo.

Afterwards, the post of Iyo Shugo was returned to Michiharu, but Katsumoto's plan to use Michiharu as a puppet to rule Iyo was rejected by Michiharu, and Michiharu fought with Shigeyuki Hosokawa, the Shugo of Awa Province from a branch family. As a result, Katsumoto and Michiharu also come into conflict.

In 1454, when an internal conflict arose in the Hatakeyama clan over the headship of the family, in order to dethrone Mochikuni, he and his father-in-law, Mochitoyo, supported Mochikuni's nephew Yasaburo and expelled his son Yoshinari, who supported Mochikuni. However, when the 8th Shogun Yoshimasa Ashikaga tried to support the revival of the Akamatsu clan, which had fallen in the Kakichi Rebellion, Mochitoyo, who had the Akamatsu clan's former territory as its protectorate, strongly opposed the revival of the Akamatsu clan.
For this reason, Mochitoyo was about to be pursued by Yoshimasa, but Katsumoto defended him at this time, and Mochitoyo was spared (before and after this, Mochitoyo became a monk and called himself Sozen).

Katsumoto Hosokawa's article continues

Tomoyo Hazuki
Writer(Writer)I have loved history and geography since my student days, and have enjoyed visiting historical sites, temples and shrines, and researching ancient documents. He is especially strong in medieval Japanese history and European history in world history, and has read a wide range of things, including primary sources and historical entertainment novels. There are so many favorite military commanders and castles that I can't name them, but I especially like Hisashi Matsunaga and Mitsuhide Akechi, and when it comes to castles, I like Hikone Castle and Fushimi Castle. Once you start talking about the lives of warlords and the history of castles, there's a side of you that can't stop talking about them.
Japanese Castle Photo Contest.03