Hisashi Matsunaga (1/2)A man who rose through the ranks through his ability

Hisashi Matsunaga

Hisashi Matsunaga

Article category
Hisashi Matsunaga (1508-1577)
place of birth
Osaka Prefecture
Related castles
Shigiyama Castle

Shigiyama Castle

Tamon Castle

Tamon Castle

related incident

During the Sengoku period, many military commanders played an active role by making use of their various abilities. In addition to Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who are said to be the three great heroes, the three great villains of the Sengoku period are Saito Dosan, Matsunaga Hide, and Ukita Naoie. But was he really a bad guy? The image will change completely due to the impression manipulation of later generations. This time, let's take a look at the life of Hisashi Matsunaga, who was not actually an evil person, but had a side that swore loyalty to his master.

From birth to emergence into the world

Hisashi Matsunaga is said to have been born in 1508, but it is said that he was born in Awa Province, Nishioka, Yamashiro Province (present-day Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City), and Gohyakuju, Settsu Province (present-day Takatsuki City). There are various theories such as that he was from a wealthy family, so it is not clear. In recent research, the theory that it is Gohyakushu of Settsu Province is gaining ground. Due to these circumstances, it can be said that there are no records of his childhood.

It is said that he served as Miyoshi Nagayoshi's right brush from around 1533 or 1534. The first description that can be confirmed in historical documents is that on June 9, 1540, Nagayoshi delivered the Senkuda 2nd Dan for the Nishinomiya Shrine Senku-ko to the temples in front of the temples, Enpuku-ji, Sairen-ji, and Tozenbo. It is said that 33-year-old Hisahide sent the letter with the contents of the donation under the official name of Danjotada.
On December 27 of the same year, Hisahide issued a subpoena to the purchase of Anto Bunmono, a wealthy Sakai merchant named Honsaya Jinzaemon Nobuo Tarui, suggesting that he was serving as a magistrate around this time.

Miyoshi Nagayoshi did not return to Awa even though he was temporarily defeated in a battle in the Kinai like previous Miyoshi forces, but instead became the lord of Koshimizu Castle and the shugodai of Settsu Shimo District and half of the country, and when he ruled the Kinai region for the first time, he did not return to Awa. It is speculated that he was appointed as a vassal of Mr.
There is a record that in 1542, as a commander of the Miyoshi army, he was stationed in the southern part of Yamashiro to subjugate the remnants of the Yamato people who were still struggling after the subjugation of Nagamasa Kizawa. Around this time, he seems to have started his activities not only as a bureaucrat but also as a military commander. It is thought that Nagayoshi served Harumoto Hosokawa since he was a subordinate, but his real rise to power began around the time Nagayoshi expelled Harumoto and established a government in the Kinai region.

Miyoshi Nagayoshi's loyal vassal period

In 1549, Miyoshi Nagayoshi expelled Hosokawa Harumoto, the 13th Muromachi shogunate shogun Yoshiteru Ashikaga, and others to Omi Province and took control of Kyoto.When the court nobles and temples and shrines negotiated with the Miyoshi family, Miyoshi Nagayoshi took control of Kyoto. I started working with Nagaitsu Miyoshi.
Similarly, in the 18th year of Tenbun (1549), Yamashina Yotsutsugu, a court noble, had the interests of his territory seized by Yoshimitsu Imamura, and when he began negotiations with Nagayoshi and others in order to recover this, Hisahide was often mentioned in the name of the negotiating partner. There are also records of his appearance. There is also a record that Hisahide received a gift from Shonyo of Honganji Temple in December of the same year.

Hisahide followed Nagayoshi to Kyoto, was appointed Danjotada as a senior vassal of the Miyoshi family, and began to call himself Danjotada's Chinese name ``Sodai.''
For a while after ascending to Kyoto, Masakatsu Miyoshi (Munei) of Harumoto Hosokawa, who was entrusted with the role of defending Kyoto and mopping up foreign enemies together with other powerful commanders, attacked Toji-in on July 14, 1551. Together with his younger brother Nagayori, he attacked and defeated Kozai Motonari and others (Battle of Shokokuji Temple).

Following Nagayoshi, he became involved in the shogunate administration, and in 1553, when Nagayoshi subdued the Kinai region, he was appointed lord of Settsu Takiyama Castle. In September of the same year, he and Nagayori attacked Sukakeyama Castle, where Hidechika Hatano in Tanba Province was holed up, but they were surprised from behind by Masakatsu Miyoshi and Motonari Kozai, who had come to reinforce the Hatano clan, and suffered a crushing defeat.
In this battle, Kunisada Naito, an ally, was killed in the battle, causing confusion in the Naito family, but Nagayori took over the Naito family as guardian of Kunisada's bereaved son, Chikatsu, and proceeded to pacify Tamba. Masu.

The conflict over Kinai and the honeymoon with Nagayoshi Miyoshi

In May of the first year of Eiroku (1558), Yoshiteru Ashikaga and Harumoto Hosokawa marched from Omi Province and saw Higashiyama on the outskirts of Kyoto. Hisahide set up camp at Kisshoin, his younger brother Nagayori, Nagatsu Miyoshi of the Miyoshi clan, Together with Sadataka Ise and Nagao Takakura, a court noble, he fought against the shogunate army at Shogun Yamashiro and Nyoigatake, and when peace was reached in November, he returned to Settsu Province (Battle of Kitashirakawa).

Hisahide participated in the Kawachi Province expedition in May 1559, and after the war, upon orders from Nagayoshi, he entered Yamato Province on August 6th under the pretext of hunting the remnants, and in one day he conquered Tsutsui Castle, the stronghold of Tsutsui Junkei. I captured it and chased it away.
In the third year of Eiroku (1560), he defeated Kofuku-ji Temple and unified the country of Yamato, while he was appointed by the shogun Yoshiteru as a gokushu, along with Nagayoshi's eldest son, Yoshioki Miyoshi, and on January 20, he was appointed Danjo Shoji. Masu. During Nagayoshi's second Kawachi expedition from June to October, he remained in Yamato Province, and from July to November he pacified the northern part of Yamato, emerging as an influential commander of the Miyoshi clan.
In November of the same year, the castle was moved from Takiyama Castle to Shigiyama Castle in the northwest of Yamato. Later, a castle tower will be built at Shigiyama Castle.

On February 4, 1561, he was promoted to Junior Fourth Rank (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) and changed his name from the Fujiwara clan to the Genji clan. Furthermore, on February 1st, Yoshiteru allowed him to use the paulownia crest and lacquered palanquin, but this was the same treatment as Nagayoshi's father and son, and by this time Yoshiteru had already gained enough power from the shogunate to rival his lord, Nagayoshi. It seems that he was seen as a presence. Around this time, Hisahide was particularly important as Nagayoshi's close aide.

Aiming to seize power in Kinai

While Hisashi Matsunaga was increasing his power, his lord, Nagayoshi Miyoshi, suffered from many misfortunes, including the successive deaths of his younger brothers Kazuyoshi Sogo, Mikyuu Miyoshi, and his eldest son Yoshioki Miyoshi.
On May 9, 1564, due to the death of Nagayoshi Miyoshi's younger brother, Fuyuyasu Ataka, the only powerful member of the Miyoshi family to rival Hisahide was Nagafusa Shinohara, who had been assisting the lord of the country in Awa. . After Nagayoshi died on July 4, he supported the Miyoshi family for a while, supporting Nagayoshi's nephew, Yoshitsugu Miyoshi, along with the Miyoshi trio (Nagaitsu Miyoshi, Muneyoshi Miyoshi, Tomomichi Iwanari).

On May 19, 1565, his son Hisamichi, Yoshitsugu Miyoshi, and Miyoshi Sanninshu led an army to Kyoto and attacked and killed Yoshiteru Ashikaga of the Muromachi Imperial Palace (Eiroku Incident). Hisahide is said to be the mastermind behind this incident, but during this period, Hisahide was often in Yamato Province, leaving his duties to Kyoto to Hisamichi, and on the day of the incident, he was also in Yamato Province and did not participate.
Immediately after, Hisahide expelled the Christian missionaries, but on August 2 of the same year, his younger brother Nagayori was defeated and died in Tamba Province, and the Miyoshi family lost Tamba Province. Hisahide eventually came into conflict with the Sanninshu over control of the Kinai region, and on November 16th, the Sanninshu who had taken over Yoshitsugu broke off relations with Hisahide. The two sides divided the Miyoshi family into two and began to fight each other.

In 1566, Yasunaga Miyoshi and Nobuyasu Ataka joined the Sanninshu side, and the 14th shogun Yoshihide Ashikaga, who was newly in charge of the Sanninshu, issued a subjugation order. Hisahide was isolated among the Miyoshi family. In February, they formed an alliance with Takamasa Hatakeyama and Munefusa Yasumi and attempted to recover by attacking Yoshitsugu's residence, Takaya Castle, in cooperation with the Negoro clan, but the trio attacked Sakai, Izumi Province. .
On February 17, Hisahide fought with the Hatakeyama army against the Sanninshu and his ally Yamato nokunijin Junkei Tsutsui at Kamishiba near Sakai (Battle of Kamishiba), but the Matsunaga and Hatakeyama forces were defeated by a pincer attack from both sides. Hisahide temporarily retreated to Tamonyama Castle and set out again in May, recruiting allies in his former territory of Settsu and joining up with Hatakeyama's army in Sakai.

At Takaya Castle, Nobusada Kanayama, a vassal of Yoshitsugu Miyoshi, tried to respond privately to Hisahide, but he was stopped by the Takaya clan and failed. Sakai was also surrounded by the three soldiers who sortied from Takaya Castle, so Hisahide returned to Sakai on May 30th. He fled and disappeared for several months.
Takamasa made peace with the Sanninshu, and the castles of Settsu and Yamashiro on the Matsunaga side were fell one after another to the Sanninshu with reinforcements such as Nagafusa Shinohara and Katsumasa Ikeda. Although Hisamichi is in charge of Tamonyama Castle while he is away, he is at a disadvantage as Junkei Tsutsui is ravaging Yamato.

On February 16, 1567, Yoshitsugu Miyoshi ran away from the Sanninshu again under the guidance of Nobusada Kanayama, relying on Hisahide, and this was an opportunity for him to regain his power, and on April 7, Returned to Shigiyama Castle from Sakai. On October 10, Hisahide succeeded in a surprise attack on Todai-ji Temple, the camp of the Sanninshu, and gained control of the Kinai region (Battle of the Great Buddha Hall of Todai-ji Temple). At this time, the Great Buddha Hall was burnt down and the head of the Great Buddha also fell. It is said to have been ordered by Hisahide, but there are various theories as to who set the Great Buddha Hall on fire (or whether it was arson or an accidental fire in the first place).

Under Oda Nobunaga

In September 1568, Nobunaga, who supported Yoshiaki Ashikaga, succeeded in ascending to Kyoto, and Hisahide, who assisted Nobunaga in ascending to Kyoto, was initially positioned as Nobunaga's ally. On October 2nd, he presented Nobunaga with a hostage and his famous tea utensil, the Kujukami Nasu.
Hisahide became an influential member of the shogunate and was granted control over Yamato Province. The Sanninshu resisted Nobunaga and were driven out of Kinai in September, Yoshiaki became the 15th shogun, and Kinai was pacified by Nobunaga.

The article by Hisashi Matsunaga continues.

related incident
Tomoyo Hazuki
Writer(Writer)I have loved history and geography since my student days, and have enjoyed visiting historical sites, temples and shrines, and researching ancient documents. He is especially strong in medieval Japanese history and European history in world history, and has read a wide range of things, including primary sources and historical entertainment novels. There are so many favorite military commanders and castles that I can't name them, but I especially like Hisashi Matsunaga and Mitsuhide Akechi, and when it comes to castles, I like Hikone Castle and Fushimi Castle. Once you start talking about the lives of warlords and the history of castles, there's a side of you that can't stop talking about them.
Japanese Castle Photo Contest.03